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John C. Leadley

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On 24 November, the European Parliament approved the final text of the EU Representative Actions Directive. The approved directive will enter into force 20 days after its publication in the EU’s Official Journal. Member States will then have 24 months to transpose the directive into national law and an extra six months in which to implement it. The new rules will apply to representative actions brought on or after its date of application. Although Member…

EUROPE — In February last year, we noted that the preliminary Jackson report on costs questioned some of the features of English litigation that have shielded UK-based businesses from US-style class actions. The final report recommends removing several of those protective features. Key recommendations include: Introducing true contingency fees in contentious business for the first time. Preventing claimants from recovering after-the-event insurance premiums and “uplifts” under a CFA from defendants. Increasing damages for torts that…